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Much of the work took place outdoors at construction sites, gravel pits, and lumber yards. No rest periods were allowed. One prisoner was assigned to the latrines to measure the time the workers took to empty their bladders and bowels.
Lunch was three quarters of a liter of watery soup at midday, reportedly foul-tasting, with meat in the soup four times a week and vegetables mostly potatoes and rutabaga three times.
The evening meal was grams of bread, often moldy, part of which the inmates were expected to keep for breakfast the next day, with a tablespoon of cheese or marmalade, or 25 grams of margarine or sausage.
Prisoners engaged in hard labor were given extra rations. A second roll call took place at seven in the evening, in the course of which prisoners might be hanged or flogged.
If a prisoner was missing, the others had to remain standing until the absentee was found or the reason for the absence discovered, even if it took hours.
On 6 July , roll call lasted 19 hours because a Polish prisoner, Tadeusz Wiejowski , had escaped; following an escape in , a group of prisoners was picked out from the escapee's workmates or barracks and sent to block 11 to be starved to death.
Then they had some free time to use the washrooms and receive their mail, unless they were Jews: Jews were not allowed to receive mail.
Curfew "nighttime quiet" was marked by a gong at nine o'clock. Eight hundred to a thousand people were crammed into the superimposed compartments of each barracks.
Unable to stretch out completely, they slept there both lengthwise and crosswise, with one man's feet on another's head, neck, or chest.
Stripped of all human dignity, they pushed and shoved and bit and kicked each other in an effort to get a few more inches' space on which to sleep a little more comfortably.
For they did not have long to sleep. Sunday was not a work day, but prisoners had to clean the barracks and take their weekly shower,  and were allowed to write in German to their families, although the SS censored the mail.
Inmates who did not speak German would trade bread for help. No watches, calendars, or clocks were permitted in the camp. Only two Jewish calendars made in Auschwitz survived to the end of the war.
Prisoners kept track of the days in other ways, such as obtaining information from newcomers. About 30 percent of the registered inmates were female.
Classified as criminal, asocial and political, they were brought to Auschwitz as founder functionaries of the women's camp.
Spiritual suffering was completely alien to them. According to Danuta Czech , this was the first registered transport sent to Auschwitz by the Reich Security Head Office RSHA office IV B4, known as the Jewish Office, led by SS Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann.
Women were at first held in blocks 1—10 of Auschwitz I,  but from 6 August ,  13, inmates were transferred to a new women's camp Frauenkonzentrationslager or FKL in Auschwitz II.
This consisted at first of 15 brick and 15 wooden barracks in sector Bauabschnitt BIa; it was later extended into BIb,  and by October it held 32, women.
Conditions in the women's camp were so poor that when a group of male prisoners arrived to set up an infirmary in October , their first task, according to researchers from the Auschwitz museum, was to distinguish the corpses from the women who were still alive.
There was one latrine for thirty to thirty-two thousand women and we were permitted to use it only at certain hours of the day.
We stood in line to get in to this tiny building, knee-deep in human excrement. As we all suffered from dysentry, we could barely wait until our turn came, and soiled our ragged clothes, which never came off our bodies, thus adding to the horror of our existence by the terrible smell that surrounded us like a cloud.
The latrine consisted of a deep ditch with planks thrown across it at certain intervals. We squatted on those planks like birds perched on a telegraph wire, so close together that we could not help soiling one another.
Langefeld was succeeded as Lagerführerin in October by SS Oberaufseherin Maria Mandl , who developed a reputation for cruelty. Höss hired men to oversee the female supervisors, first SS Obersturmführer Paul Müller, then SS Hauptsturmführer Franz Hössler.
Sterilization experiments were carried out in barracks 30 by a German gynecologist, Carl Clauberg , and another German doctor, Horst Schumann.
German doctors performed a variety of experiments on prisoners at Auschwitz. SS doctors tested the efficacy of X-rays as a sterilization device by administering large doses to female prisoners.
Carl Clauberg injected chemicals into women's uteruses in an effort to glue them shut. Prisoners were infected with spotted fever for vaccination research and exposed to toxic substances to study the effects.
A Bayer employee wrote to Rudolf Höss: "The transport of women arrived in good condition. However, we were unable to obtain conclusive results because they died during the experiments.
We would kindly request that you send us another group of women to the same number and at the same price.
The most infamous doctor at Auschwitz was Josef Mengele , the "Angel of Death", who worked in Auschwitz II from 30 May , at first in the gypsy family camp.
In April , the children were killed by hanging to conceal the project. A Jewish skeleton collection was obtained from among a pool of Jewish inmates, chosen for their perceived stereotypical racial characteristics.
The collection was sanctioned by Heinrich Himmler and under the direction of August Hirt. Ultimately 87 of the inmates were shipped to Natzweiler-Struthof and killed in August Prisoners could be beaten and killed by guards and kapos for the slightest infraction of the rules.
Polish historian Irena Strzelecka writes that kapos were given nicknames that reflected their sadism: "Bloody", "Iron", "The Strangler", "The Boxer".
Flogging during roll-call was common. A flogging table called "the goat" immobilized prisoners' feet in a box, while they stretched themselves across the table.
Prisoners had to count out the lashes—"25 mit besten Dank habe ich erhalten" "25 received with many thanks" — and if they got the figure wrong, the flogging resumed from the beginning.
If their shoulders were too damaged afterwards to work, they might be sent to the gas chamber. Prisoners were subjected to the post for helping a prisoner who had been beaten, and for picking up a cigarette butt.
Known as block 13 until , block 11 of Auschwitz I was the prison within the prison, reserved for inmates suspected of resistance activities.
Split into four sections, each section measured less than 1. The courtyard between blocks 10 and 11, known as the "death wall", served as an execution area, including for Poles in the General Government area who had been sentenced to death by a criminal court.
The accused were led to the wall one at a time, stripped naked and with their hands tied behind their backs.
Danuta Czech noted that a "clandestine Catholic mass " was said the following Sunday on the second floor of Block 4 in Auschwitz I, in a narrow space between bunks.
An estimated 4, Polish political prisoners were executed at the death wall, including members of the camp resistance.
An additional 10, Poles were brought to the camp to be executed without being registered. About 1, Soviet prisoners of war died by execution, although this is a rough estimate.
A Polish government-in-exile report stated that 11, prisoners and 6, prisoners of war had been executed. And yet, at that last moment, many of them shouted 'Long live Poland', or 'Long live freedom'.
A separate camp for the Roma , the Zigeunerfamilienlager "Gypsy family camp" , was set up in the BIIe sector of Auschwitz II-Birkenau in February For unknown reasons, they were not subject to selection and families were allowed to stay together.
The first transport of German Roma arrived on 26 February that year. There had been a small number of Romani inmates before that; two Czech Romani prisoners, Ignatz and Frank Denhel, tried to escape in December , the latter successfully, and a Polish Romani woman, Stefania Ciuron, arrived on 12 February and escaped in April.
The Auschwitz registry Hauptbücher shows that 20, Roma were registered prisoners,  and another 3, are thought to have entered unregistered.
Shortly after this, the SS removed nearly 2, from the family camp to work, and on 2 August gassed the other 2, Ten thousand remain unaccounted for.
The SS deported around 18, Jews to Auschwitz from the Theresienstadt ghetto in Terezin , Czechoslovakia ,  beginning on 8 September with a transport of 2, male and 2, female prisoners.
An infirmary was set up in barracks 30 and 32, and barracks 31 became a school and kindergarten. On 8 March , 3, of the prisoners men, women and children were sent to the gas chambers; the men were taken to crematorium III and the women later to crematorium II.
Several twins were held back for medical experiments. The first gassings at Auschwitz took place in early September , when around inmates—Soviet prisoners of war and sick Polish inmates—were killed with Zyklon B in the basement of block 11 in Auschwitz I.
The building proved unsuitable, so gassings were conducted instead in crematorium I, also in Auschwitz I, which operated until December There, more than victims could be killed at once.
After its decommissioning as a gas chamber, the building was converted to a storage facility and later served as an SS air raid shelter.
Dwork and van Pelt write that a chimney was recreated; four openings in the roof were installed to show where the Zyklon B had entered; and two of the three furnaces were rebuilt with the original components.
In early , mass exterminations were moved to two provisional gas chambers the "red house" and "white house", known as bunkers 1 and 2 in Auschwitz II, while the larger crematoria II, III, IV, and V were under construction.
Bunker 2 was temporarily reactivated from May to November , when large numbers of Hungarian Jews were gassed. From Jews were being transported to Auschwitz from all over German-occupied Europe by rail, arriving in daily convoys.
On 29 April the first 1, Jews from Hungary arrived at the camp. Crematoria II and III were given new elevators leading from the stoves to the gas chambers, new grates were fitted, and several of the dressing rooms and gas chambers were painted.
Cremation pits were dug behind crematorium V. According to Polish historian Franciszek Piper , of the 1,, Jews deported to Auschwitz, around , were registered in the camp and given serial numbers; 25, were sent to other camps; and , were killed soon after arrival.
During "selection" on arrival, those deemed able to work were sent to the right and admitted into the camp registered , and the rest were sent to the left to be gassed.
The group selected to die included almost all children, women with small children, the elderly, and others who appeared on brief and superficial inspection by an SS doctor not to be fit for work.
The crematoria consisted of a dressing room, gas chamber, and furnace room. In crematoria II and III, the dressing room and gas chamber were underground; in IV and V, they were on the ground floor.
The dressing room had numbered hooks on the wall to hang clothes. In crematorium II, there was also a dissection room Sezierraum. The victims undressed in the dressing room and walked into the gas chamber; signs said "Bade" bath or "Desinfektionsraum" disinfection room.
A former prisoner testified that the language of the signs changed depending on who was being killed. The Zyklon B was delivered to the crematoria by a special SS bureau known as the Hygiene Institute.
The victims were usually dead within 10 minutes; Rudolf Höss testified that it took up to 20 minutes.
It was found in , signed "A. A": . It would be difficult to even imagine that so many people would fit in such a small [room].
They would have suffocated from the lack of air within several hours. Then all the doors were sealed tight and the gas thrown in by way of a small hole in the ceiling.
There was nothing more that the people inside could do. And so they only screamed in bitter, lamentable voices. Others complained in voices full of despair, and others still sobbed spasmodically and sent up a dire, heart-rending weeping.
And in the meantime, their voices grew weaker and weaker Because of the great crowding, people fell one atop another as they died, until a heap arose consisting of five or six layers atop the other, reaching a height of one meter.
Mothers froze in a seated position on the ground embracing their children in their arms, and husbands and wives died hugging each other.
Some of the people made up a formless mass. Others stood in a leaning position, while the upper parts, from the stomach up, were in a lying position.
Some of the people had turned completely blue under the influence of the gas, while others looks entirely fresh, as if they were asleep.
Sonderkommando wearing gas masks dragged the bodies from the chamber. Just before cremation, jewelry was removed, along with dental work and teeth containing precious metals.
The corpses were burned in the nearby incinerators, and the ashes were buried, thrown in the Vistula river, or used as fertilizer. Any bits of bone that had not burned properly were ground down in wooden mortars.
At least 1. The Germans tried to conceal how many they had killed. In July , according to Rudolf Höss 's post-war memoir, Höss received an order from Heinrich Himmler , via Adolf Eichmann 's office and SS commander Paul Blobel , that "[a]ll mass graves were to be opened and the corpses burned.
In addition the ashes were to be disposed of in such a way that it would be impossible at some future time to calculate the number of corpses burned.
Earlier estimates of the death toll were higher than Piper's. Following the camp's liberation, the Soviet government issued a statement, on 8 May , that four million people had been killed on the site, a figure based on the capacity of the crematoria.
Even Auschwitz had limits to its destructive possibilities," he wrote. Around one in six Jews killed in the Holocaust died in Auschwitz.
Camp of Death pamphlet by Natalia Zarembina . The resistance sent out the first oral message about Auschwitz with Dr. Aleksander Wielkopolski, a Polish engineer who was released in October The report said of the Jews in the camp that "scarcely any of them came out alive".
According to Fleming, the booklet was "widely circulated amongst British officials". The Polish Fortnightly Review based a story on it, writing that "three crematorium furnaces were insufficient to cope with the bodies being cremated", as did The Scotsman on 8 January , the only British news organization to do so.
On 24 December , the resistance groups representing the various prisoner factions met in block 45 and agreed to cooperate. Fleming writes that it has not been possible to track Pilecki's early intelligence from the camp.
Pilecki compiled two reports after he escaped in April ; the second, Raport W , detailed his life in Auschwitz I and estimated that 1.
Reporting that inmates were being killed "through excessive work, torture and medical means", it noted the gassing of the Soviet prisoners of war and Polish inmates in Auschwitz I in September , the first gassing in the camp.
It said: "It is estimated that the Oswiecim camp can accommodate fifteen thousand prisoners, but as they die on a mass scale there is always room for new arrivals.
The Polish government-in-exile in London first reported the gassing of prisoners in Auschwitz on 21 July ,  and reported the gassing of Soviet POWs and Jews on 4 September According to Fleming, the British press responded, in and the first half of , either by not publishing reports about Auschwitz or by burying them on the inside pages.
The exception was the Polish Jewish Observer , a City and East London Observer supplement edited by Joel Cang, a former Warsaw correspondent for the Manchester Guardian.
The British reticence stemmed from a Foreign Office concern that the public might pressure the government to respond or provide refuge for the Jews, and that British actions on behalf of the Jews might affect its relationships in the Middle East.
There was similar reticence in the United States, and indeed within the Polish government-in-exile and the Polish resistance.
According to Fleming, the scholarship suggests that the Polish resistance distributed information about the Holocaust in Auschwitz without challenging the Allies' reluctance to highlight it.
The Austrian resistance group around the priest Heinrich Maier learned very early about the mass murder of Jews through their contacts with the Buna and Semperit factories near Auschwitz.
They passed their information on to their American contacts at the OSS in Zurich, who initially did not believe the information.
Four Polish prisoners—Eugeniusz Bendera serial number , Kazimierz Piechowski no. After breaking into a warehouse, three of them dressed as SS officers and stole rifles and an SS staff car, which they drove out of the camp with the fourth handcuffed as a prisoner.
They wrote later to Rudolf Höss apologizing for the loss of the vehicle. Both survived the war. For having saved her, Bielecki was recognized by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among the Nations.
Jerzy Tabeau no. The distribution of the Vrba-Wetzler report , and publication of parts of it in June , helped to halt the deportation of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz.
On 27 May , Arnost Rosin no. The prisoners implore the Polish Government to have the camp bombed. The destruction of the electrified barbed wire, the ensuing panic and darkness prevailing, the chances of escape would be great.
The local population will hide them and help them to leave the neighbourhood. The prisoners are confidently awaiting the day when Polish planes from Great Britain will enable their escape.
This is the prisoners unanimous demand to the Polish Government in London. Pierse replied that it was not technically feasible to bomb the camp without harming the prisoners.
In his book The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust — , Wyman argued that, since the IG Farben plant at Auschwitz III had been bombed three times between August and December by the US Fifteenth Air Force in Italy, it would have been feasible for the other camps or railway lines to be bombed too.
Bernard Wasserstein 's Britain and the Jews of Europe and Martin Gilbert 's Auschwitz and the Allies raised similar questions about British inaction.
The Sonderkommando who worked in the crematoria were witnesses to the mass murder and were therefore regularly killed themselves.
After escaping through a fence using wirecutters, they managed to reach Rajsko , where they hid in the granary of an Auschwitz satellite camp, but the SS pursued and killed them by setting the granary on fire.
By the time the rebellion at crematorium IV had been suppressed, members of the Sonderkommando were still alive and had been killed. The Sonderkommando and other prisoners began the job of dismantling the buildings and cleaning up the site.
According to Polish historian Andrzej Strzelecki, the evacuation of the camp was one of its "most tragic chapters". Between 1 December and 15 January , over one million items of clothing were packed to be shipped out of Auschwitz; 95, such parcels were sent to concentration camps in Germany.
Beginning on 17 January, some 58, Auschwitz detainees about two-thirds Jews —over 20, from Auschwitz I and II and over 30, from the subcamps—were evacuated under guard, at first heading west on foot, then by open-topped freight trains, to concentration camps in Germany and Austria: Bergen-Belsen , Buchenwald , Dachau , Flossenburg , Gross-Rosen , Mauthausen , Dora-Mittelbau , Ravensbruck , and Sachsenhausen.
On 20 January, crematoria II and III were blown up, and on 23 January the "Kanada" warehouses were set on fire; they apparently burned for five days.
Crematorium IV had been partly demolished after the Sonderkommando revolt in October, and the rest of it was destroyed later. Birka was founded around AD by either a king in order to control and expand trade or it emerged from a seasonal trading place around.
Birka was the Baltic link in the river and portage route through Ladoga Aldeigja and Novgorod Holmsgard to the Byzantine Empire and the Abbasid Califate.
As a trading center Birka most likely offered furs and iron goods as well as craft products, in exchange for various materials from much of Europe and western Asia.
Furs were obtained from the Sami , Finns , and people in northwestern Russia as well as from local trappers.
Furs included bear , fox , marten , otter , beaver and other species. Reindeer antler was an important item in exchange as well as hand-carved combs made from antler.
Also walrus teeth, amber, and honey were exchanged. Foreign goods found from the graves of Birka include glass and metal ware, pottery from the Rhineland , clothing and textiles including Chinese silk , Byzantine embroidery with extremely fine gold thread, brocades with gold passementerie and plaited cords of high quality.
From the ninth century onwards coins minted at Haithabu in northern Germany and elsewhere in Scandinavia start to appear. The vast majority of the coins found at Birka are however silver dirhams from the Caliphate.
English and Carolingian coins are rare. Sources of Birka are mainly archaeological remains. No texts survive from this area, though the written text Vita Ansgari "The life of Ansgar" by Rimbert c.
St Ansgar's work was the first attempt to convert the inhabitants from the Norse religion to Christianity, and it was unsuccessful.
Both Rimbert and Adam were German clergymen writing in Latin. There are no known Norse sources mentioning the name of the settlement, or even the settlement itself, and the original Norse name of Birka is unknown.
Birca is the Latinised form given in the sources and Birka its contemporary, unhistorical Swedish form. The Latin name is probably derived from an Old Norse word " birk " which probably meant a market place.
Related to this was the Bjärköa law bjärköarätt which regulated the life on market places in Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
Both terms in different forms are very common in Scandinavian place names still today leading to speculation that all references to Birca especially by Adam of Bremen were not about the same location.
Both publications are silent on Birca's size, layout and appearance. Based on Rimbert's account, Birca was significant because it had a port and it was the place for the regional ting.
Adam only mentions the port, but otherwise Birca seems to have been significant to him because it had been the bridgehead of Ansgar's Christian mission and because archbishop Unni had been buried there.
Vita Ansgari and Gesta are sometimes ambiguous, which has caused some controversy as to whether Birca and the Björkö settlement were the same location.
Many other locations have been suggested through the years. Birka was abandoned during the later half of the 10th century. Based on the coin finds, the city seems to have silenced around A contributing factor may have been the post-glacial rebound , which lowered the water level of Mälaren changing it from an arm of the sea into a lake and cut Birka off from the nearest southern access to the Baltic Sea.
The Varangian trade stations in Russia suffered a serious decline at roughly the same date. In Vita Ansgari "The life of Ansgar"  monk and later archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen Rimbert gives the first known description of Birka.
The town was the center of Catholic missionary activities in the 9th century Sweden. Rimbert's interests were in the Christian faith, not so much in the Swedish geopolicy, so his descriptions of Birka remain approximate at best.
Meanwhile it happened that Swedish ambassadors had come to the Emperor Louis the Pious , and, amongst other matters which they had been ordered to bring to the attention of the emperor, they informed him that there were many belonging to their nation who desired to embrace the Christian religion, and that their king so far favoured this suggestion that he would permit God's priests to reside there, provided that they might be deemed worthy of such a favour and that the emperor would send them suitable preachers.
Chapter IX. Ansgar then undertook the mission committed to him by the emperor, who desired that he should go to the Swedes and discover whether this people was prepared to accept the faith as their messengers had declared.
Chapter X. Ansgar was already experienced in the missionary work in Denmark , and set forth to Sweden. Rimbert describes the trip very generally:.
It may suffice for me to say that while they were in the midst of their journey they fell into the hands of pirates.
The merchants with whom they were travelling, defended themselves vigorously and for a time successfully, but eventually they were conquered and overcome by the pirates, who took from them their ships and all that they possessed, whilst they themselves barely escaped on.
Chapters X and XI. Rimbert does not say where Ansgar sailed off or where he landed. Noteworthy is just his note about several "seas" that they had to cross to get to Birka from the place they had landed to.
Since Rimbert mentions them to have crossed the seas by ship "where it was possible" they clearly had the alternative of going around them as well, meaning that the seas were probably the numerous lakes in southern Sweden.
When Ansgar again travelled to Birka from Germany about , it went easier:. Ansgar accomplished the journey on which he had set out, and after spending nearly twenty days in a ship, he arrived at Birka Chapter XXVI.
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Beistelltisch Baumstumpf. After my recent fling with birch branches and evergreens I though you would appreciate a quick tutorial on How to Create a Birch Wreath.
Ein Tischchen zum Verlieben! Holzlampe Baumstamm - mit Beleuchtung Diese hübsche Holzlampe wurde liebevoll in Handarbeit hergestellt.
Sie lässt das Licht sanft erstrahlen und bringt durch das naturbelassene Holz Gemütlichkeit nach Hause. Having a strong design in your home can be more than enough if you want to do some redecorating.
An element that attracts attention and turns the whole look of your interior into something new and original can be hard to find.